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Blog > What Are the Types of Audit Evidence? How Do You Collect Them? 

What Are the Types of Audit Evidence? How Do You Collect Them? 

VComply Editorial Team
May 22, 2024
5 minutes

Audit evidence refers to the information and documentation that auditors gather and use to support their findings and conclusions during an audit process. It provides the basis for auditors to form an opinion on the accuracy, checks if the company is following regulations, and examines the sanctity of the organization’s compliance posture, financial statements, and assertions.

Audit evidence helps auditors assess the reliability of compliance information and determine whether an organization’s compliance statements comply with relevant standards and regulations. It aims to provide an independent opinion on whether the compliance statements present a true and fair view of the organization’s compliance posture, and performance by evaluating an organization’s adherence to specific laws, regulations, policies, and procedures. Compliance audit evidence aims to determine whether the organization is operating within the boundaries set by external rules and internal guidelines. It also gives people trust that the company is responsible and doing its best to follow the rules, which is really important for everyone’s safety and fairness. In essence, in the world of auditing, forming a credible and informed audit opinion rests on a cornerstone known as “audit evidence.”

ISA 500 explains that audit evidence is the “information used by the auditor in arriving at the conclusions on which the auditor’s opinion is based”. While the IIA Standard 2330 outlines quality evidence as information that is “sufficient, reliable, relevant, and useful to achieve the engagement’s objectives,” auditors must also navigate the intricacies of requesting, gathering, and appropriately storing documentation. The structure, arrangement, and format of work papers might differ across organizations and engagement types. Nevertheless, maintaining uniformity in documentation by adhering to best practices throughout the audit process is vital.

What are the types of audit procedures?

Audit procedures are the specific methods and techniques that auditors use to gather audit evidence and assess an organization’s financial statements, internal controls, and compliance with regulations. There are several types of audit procedures, each serving a specific purpose in the audit process. Here are some common types:

Risk Assessment Procedures:

These procedures help auditors understand the organization’s internal controls, identify potential risks, and plan the audit accordingly.
Examples include inquiries with management, reviewing organizational charts, and assessing the control environment.

Test of Controls:

These procedures assess the effectiveness of an organization’s internal controls to prevent and detect errors and fraud.
Examples include observing control activities, inspecting documents, and reviewing authorization procedures.

Substantive Procedures:

These procedures focus on gathering direct evidence about the accuracy and completeness of compliance procedures.
Examples include the healthcare organization selecting a random sample of patient records from their electronic health record (EHR) system.

Analytical Procedures:

These procedures involve evaluating information by comparing it with expectations and identifying unusual or unexpected trends.
Examples include organizations regularly conducting quality control tests on their production batches to assess compliance with GMP standards.

Inquiry and Confirmation:

Inquiry involves asking questions of management or relevant personnel to gather information.
Confirmation entails obtaining external verification directly from third parties, such as banks or customers.


Observing physical processes or activities to verify their alignment with reported information.
For example, observing inventory counts or cash handling procedures.


Comparing different sets of records to ensure consistency and accuracy.
For example, reconciling bank statements with cash balances in the financial statements.


Reviewing statements and documents for unusual items or patterns that may require further investigation.


Following the path of a transaction from its source document through the accounting system to its final posting in the financial statements.

Cut-off Review:

Verifying that transactions and activities are accurately recorded within the appropriate compliance reporting timeframe, with a particular focus on the end of the reporting period,

Dual Confirmation:

Obtaining confirmation of a transaction or balance from two independent sources to enhance reliability.
These audit procedures, employed in combination and tailored to the specific audit objectives and risks, enable auditors to gather appropriate evidence and form reliable conclusions about the organization’s financial status, internal controls, and compliance efforts.

Various methods of obtaining audit evidence

Obtaining compliance audit evidence involves using a variety of methods to ensure that an organization is adhering to relevant regulations and standards. Here are some key methods:

Document Review: Reviewing policies, procedures, contracts, agreements, and other relevant documents to understand how the organization is addressing compliance requirements.

Observation: Physically observing operations, processes, and practices to verify that they align with regulatory expectations and internal controls.

Interviews: Engaging in conversations with key personnel to gather insights into how compliance processes are being implemented, monitored, and enforced.

Testing Controls: Assessing the effectiveness of internal controls by testing their operation to ensure they are working as intended.

Data Analysis: Using data analytics tools to analyze large datasets for anomalies, trends, or potential non-compliance indicators.

Third-Party Confirmation: Confirming compliance-related information with external parties such as vendors, customers, or regulatory authorities.

Audit Trail Review: Examining audit trails, logs, and digital records to trace user activities and system changes for evidence of compliance efforts.

Sampling: Selecting a representative sample of transactions or activities for review to infer compliance across a larger population.

External Expertise: Seeking input from legal experts, consultants, or specialists in specific compliance areas to ensure a thorough assessment.

Comparative Analysis: Comparing the organization’s practices against industry benchmarks or best practices to identify areas for improvement.

Surveys and Questionnaires: Administering surveys or questionnaires to employees or stakeholders to gather their perspectives on compliance practices.

Review of Training Materials: Evaluating training materials and programs to ensure employees are well-informed about compliance requirements.

Technology Tools: Using specialized compliance software to monitor, track, and report on compliance activities.

Collaboration with Compliance Teams: Working closely with internal compliance teams to understand their findings, processes, and recommended actions.

Continuous Monitoring: Implementing ongoing audits and monitoring processes to ensure sustained compliance over time.

By employing a combination of these methods, auditors can gather comprehensive compliance audit evidence that supports accurate assessments, identifies potential issues, and contributes to an organization’s commitment to ethical and legal practices.

Different types of audit evidence

Audit evidence encompasses various forms of information and documentation that auditors gather and analyze to support their conclusions and opinions during the audit process. The audit evidence provides a comprehensive view of an organization’s internal controls and compliance efforts. Understanding these different types is essential for auditors to form accurate judgments about an entity’s financial statements and operations.

Let’s explore the key categories of audit evidence

Physical Evidence:
Auditors can directly observe and physically verify tangible assets like inventory, equipment, and property. By visually inspecting these assets, auditors can assess their existence, condition, and valuation. For example, counting physical inventory or inspecting machinery on-site provides direct evidence of their presence and condition.

Documentary Evidence:
Written records play a crucial role in providing documentary support for transactions and events. Contracts, invoices, purchase orders, bank statements, and agreements are examples of documents that serve as evidence of transactions. These documents provide a paper trail that substantiates the occurrence of business activities and transactions.

Analytical Evidence:
Analytical procedures involve evaluating financial data to identify relationships, trends, and inconsistencies. By comparing current financial information with historical data, industry benchmarks, or budgeted amounts, auditors can detect unusual fluctuations or deviations. Analytical evidence helps auditors identify areas that warrant further investigation.

Oral Evidence:
Information obtained through inquiries and discussions with management, employees, and relevant personnel is considered oral evidence. During interviews and discussions, auditors gather insights, explanations, and clarifications about transactions, controls, and processes. Oral evidence helps auditors gain a deeper understanding of the organization’s operations.

External Evidence:
External evidence refers to confirmation obtained from independent third parties external to the organization. This type of evidence adds credibility to financial information. For example, auditors might directly confirm balances with customers or banks to verify the accuracy of reported account balances.

Electronic Evidence:
As organizations increasingly rely on digital systems, electronic evidence becomes significant. Electronic evidence includes digital records, databases, emails, and electronic bank statements. Auditors can extract data from systems and databases to verify transactions and analyze electronic trails for potential irregularities.

types of audit evidence

These types of audit evidence collectively provide auditors with a comprehensive picture of an organization’s financial position, transactions, and internal controls. By carefully evaluating these various forms of evidence, auditors can form well-informed conclusions and opinions about the accuracy and fairness of an organization’s financial statements and compliance efforts.

Gather audit evidence using technology

VComply can significantly enhance the process of collecting evidence during audits. The software offers a centralized and organized platform to manage all compliance-related tasks, documents, and evidence efficiently. With the ability to directly upload different forms of evidence, the software ensures that all essential documents are neatly stored and readily accessible when required. This not only saves time but also improves the accuracy of evidence retrieval.

Moreover, the software’s notification and alert features play a crucial role in keeping responsible individuals informed about impending evidence submission deadlines. This proactive approach prevents oversights and helps maintain a smooth and timely evidence-collection process.

Collaboration between auditors and the organization’s compliance team is greatly facilitated through the software. Auditors can seamlessly request specific evidence, monitor progress, and provide feedback, all within the same platform. This real-time collaboration not only enhances communication but also expedites the resolution of any queries or concerns that might arise during the audit process.

VComply makes audit management very easy. It’s like a central hub where you can plan and manage audits together. You can assign tasks, work together in real-time, and store all the important evidence. It even sends reminders so you don’t miss deadlines. Plus, it gives you clear reports to make smart decisions.

Ready to level up your audits? Check out VComply now. It makes tasks simple, teamwork strong, and staying compliant a breeze.